SAGE Journal Articles
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Article 1: Porter, C. L., Hart, C. H., Yang, C., Robinson, C. C., Olsen, S. F., Zeng, Q., & Olsen, J. A. (2005). A comparative study of child temperament and parenting in Beijing, China and the western United States. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29(6), 541-551.
Learning Objective: 10.2
How does the asset support this Learning Objective? The article discusses the link between child temperament and parenting styles in China and the United States.
Summary: The purpose of this investigation was to examine comparable dimensions and linkages between child temperament and parenting styles with samples from Beijing, China and the western United States. Participants included 404 mothers and fathers from Beijing, China and 325 mothers and fathers from the western United States. Both mothers and fathers completed Buss and Plomin's (1984) EAS Temperament Scale as well as a spousal-report measure of parenting styles. Structural equation modelling was used to identify invariant (statistically comparable) factors for child temperament and parenting styles. Within-culture gender comparisons showed that Chinese fathers (relative to mothers) viewed their sons as being more active and sociable than daughters while US mothers (relative to fathers) rated their sons as being more active. Across-culture differences revealed that US parents (relative to Chinese parents) viewed children as more emotional while Chinese fathers (relative to US fathers) rated their children as more active. Similar and differential cultural patterns of linkages were also found between parenting styles and child temperament. Child emotionality was positively associated with authoritarian parenting in both cultures while child activity level was linked to more authoritative and less authoritarian parenting styles, but only in the Chinese sample. Finally, child sociability was found to be negatively linked to cross-gender patterns of authoritarian parenting in the US while mothers’ and fathers’ authoritarian parenting in China was linked to lower sociability in daughters only.
Questions to Consider:
- How do Chinese parents and US parents differ in terms of how they view their children’s temperament characteristics?
- How is child temperament related to parenting styles based on culture?
- Why do the cultural differences exist between parenting and child temperament?
Article 2: Woolgar, M., & Scott, S. (2014). The negative consequences of over-diagnosing attachment disorders in adopted children: The importance of comprehensive formulations. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 19(3), 355-366.
Learning Objective: 10.6
How does the asset support this Learning Objective? The article discusses the consequences of over-diagnosing attachment disorders in adopted children.
Summary: In many child services across health, education and social care, ‘attachment disorder’ is a popular description and explanation for complex presentations of children who have been neglected or maltreated and is frequently used to describe fostered and adopted children. Very often the use of this term bears little resemblance to the established diagnostic systems, nor indeed to attachment theory as conceptualized by Bowlby. Its misuse can lead professionals to overlook commoner and more treatable conditions, to the detriment of the children. In fact both reactive and disinhibited attachment disorders are rare, but are becoming better characterized by high quality research. Poor understanding about the attachment disorder construct can pose particular problems for clinicians working with adopted children. The current paper briefly reviews the practical difficulties with the attachment disorder diagnosis as applied to adopted children and uses four case studies taken from a specialist Adoption and Fostering Service to highlight some of the problems for services working with adopted children. Finally, we propose some provisional recommendations for the assessment and treatment of adopted children and their families, which aim to be consistent with attachment theory as well as with the existing evidence base on wider child mental health problems.
Questions to Consider:
- What are the difficulties with the attachment disorder diagnosis as applied to adopted children?
- What are the problems for services working with adopted children?
- What are the recommendations for the assessment and treatment of adopted children and their families?