After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following:
1. Discuss reasons that states established free and universal education in the 1800s and how that goal aligns with U.S. schools today.
2. Analyze some of the historical events that have resulted in different educational experiences among students from diverse racial and ethnic groups.
3. Describe some practical and pedagogical reasons for the establishment of schools by the age of children.
4. Analyze the people and events that have been influential in determining school curricula in the nation’s schools and reflect on how the cultures of those people have impacted today’s curricula.
5. Reflect on the differences in the professional lives of teachers between the 19th century and now.