SAGE Journal Articles

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Journal Article 7.1 Nedjat-Haiem, F. R., Carrion, I. V., Gonzalez, K., Bennett, E. D., Ell, K., O’Connell, M., Thompson, B., & Mishra, S. I. (2018). Exploring motivational interviewing to engage Latinos in advance care planning: A community-based social work intervention. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, 35(8): 1091-1098.

Abstract: Advance care planning (ACP) does not readily occur in medical settings and often gets missed. Older Latinos need ACP information to encourage advance directive (AD) completion indicating preferences for end-of-life (EOL) care. Objective: To explore the experiences with counseling using motivational interviewing (MI) techniques and social workers to encourage ACP communication among older Latinos with advance chronic diseases. This study describes stages of readiness to plan for EOL care. Design: We conducted a qualitative study with older Latinos who participated in a community-based intervention in Southern New Mexico. Methods: Participants in the intervention were selected because they received ACP education plus counseling involving MI to address resistance to ACP. Motivational interviewing counseling involved the following: (1) engaging in structured dialogue about ACP, (2) using and completing AD documentation, (3) encouraging ACP communication with providers and families, and (4) applying AD information into actionable behavior. We utilized a constant comparative method and thematic analysis to explore the meaning of older Latinos’ experiences with MI counseling and stages of change. Results: Participants (n = 32) were mostly women (74.3%), half born in the United States and half from Mexico in the United States on average for 31.75 (standard deviation 16.22) years. Many had less than sixth grade education (31.3%) or had not completed high school (21.9%). Key themes indicate the following stages of change: (1) pre-contemplation, (2) contemplation, (3) preparation, (4) ACP action, and (5) maintenance. Conclusion: This study contributes to the literature by identifying areas for adaption to enhance understanding and increase information to ultimately achieve the completion of ACP among Latinos.

Learning Objective: 7.4 Articulate a method for planning using motivational interviewing.

Journal Article 7.2 Donnelly, S., Begley, E., & O’Brien, M. (2018). How are people with dementia involved in care-planning and decision-making? An Irish social work perspective. Dementia: 1-19.

Abstract: In recent years, there have been national and international policy advances around capacity and decision-making and an apparent burgeoning rights-based approach to the issue, all of which have the potential to impact on the experience for people with dementia in Ireland. There is little evidence, however, on whether these policies and principles are being translated into practice and whether traditional paternalistic approaches to decision-making are being challenged. To gain insight into current practice, research was undertaken with social workers working with older people in Ireland; reporting on the involvement of people living with dementia in care-planning processes. Data collection included a mixed method approach, an on-line survey of social workers from across the country who reported on their open caseload during the month of June 2015 (N = 38 social workers reporting on the experiences of 788 older people, of which 39% of older people had a formal diagnosis of dementia). In addition, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with social workers working in the nine Community Health Organization areas (N = 21). Findings show that people with dementia were high users of social work services, accounting for 44.5% of the client group. Social workers reported that there were no standardized approaches to how health and social care professionals involved people with dementia in care planning and decision-making. Overall, people with dementia were more likely to be excluded from decision-making processes due to (1) assumptions that they lacked capacity, (2) family members preferences that the person was not involved, (3) communication difficulties, (4) time constraints, (5) little or no opportunity given, or (6) the person delegated decision-making to others. Good practices were identified through multidisciplinary team approaches and formal care planning meetings. This research highlights variability in how people with dementia participate in decision-making around their care. It sheds light on existing barriers which challenge the full implementation of the Irish Assisted Decision-Making legislation; highlighting the need for appropriate guidance and education for health and social care professionals. The findings also show that family dynamics and existing relationships can play a role in how people with dementia participate and are involved. To ensure consistent opportunities for participation, effective practices and approaches to supporting the participation of people living with dementia in care planning needs to be developed and rolled out in all care settings through increased training and adoption of standardized approaches.

Learning Objective: 7.5 Demonstrate understanding of the process of goal development for future evaluation.