SAGE Journal Articles

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Journal Article 1: Cultural Tightness-Looseness and Perceptions of Effective Leadership

Aktas, M., Gelfand, M. J., & Hanges, P. J. (2015). Cultural tightness–looseness and perceptions of effective leadership. 47, 294–309. doi:10.1177/0022022115606802

Abstract: Previous research has investigated the relationship between cultural values and leadership. This research expands on this tradition and examines how the strength of social norms--or tightness–looseness--influences perceptions of effective leadership. Data from Gelfand et al. were integrated with GLOBE’s leadership research to examine the attributes of leaders seen as leading to effectiveness in tight and loose cultures. Analyses of data across 29 samples show that cultural tightness is positively related to the endorsement of autonomous leadership and negatively related to the endorsement of charismatic and team leadership, even controlling for in-group collectivism, power distance, and future orientation at the societal and organizational level of analysis. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Journal Article 2: Expatriation and Career Success

Ramaswami, A., Carter, N. M., & Dreher, G. F. (2016). Expatriation and career success: A human capital perspective. 69, 1959–1987. doi:10.1177/0018726716630390

Abstract: Very little is known about the linkages between expatriation and objective measures of career success. In this field study we address the expatriation–compensation attainment relationship, after controlling for different kinds of international experience, among 440 graduates of elite MBA programs from around the world. The results suggest that a positive compensation return only accrues to repatriates who have experienced more than one expatriate assignment, perceived acquired knowledge and skills to be utilized during post-repatriation periods, and who are working at higher organizational levels. These findings, along with a supplementary analysis, support an explanation of the results based on human capital theory. That is, expatriation relates to compensation attainment because it is an intense developmental experience, and not merely a selection or signaling mechanism. Furthermore, by incorporating the concepts of value of human capital, richness of human capital, and opportunity to display human capital, we provide a stronger test of when and for whom completing expatriate assignments is positively associated with compensation. The results also suggest that there are currently few readily available substitutes for expatriation.