Study Questions

Short Answer

1. Give two major advantages of within-subjects designs over between-subjects designs.
Ans: Within-subjects designs reduce error in the data, which means that the power of the study increases. Another advantage is that you need fewer participants in the study compared to the between-subjects designs.
Learning Objective: 14.2: What are the advantages of using a within-subjects design? What are the disadvantages?
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Within-Subjects Designs

2. What is an order effect and how can it be overcome in within-subjects designs?
Ans: An order effect is when the order in which the participants experience the conditions affects the behaviors/responses the participants make. In order to reduce bias created by order effects, the researchers use counterbalancing.
Learning Objective: 14.3 How does the calculation of the variance terms in an ANOVA change from within-subject designs?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Within-Subjects Designs