SAGE Journal Articles

Glenn, E. (2011). Constructing Citizenship: Exclusion, Subordination, and Resistance. American Sociological Review, 76(1), 1-24.

This article, the 2010 Presidential Address to the American Sociological Association, examines the sociological concept of citizenship, arguing that citizenship is not simply a fixed legal status, but is actually a fluid status that is produced through everyday practices and struggles.  Supported by historical examples, the author’s argument that the boundaries of membership are critically reinforced, challenged, and articulated in everyday practice, leads to her contention that undocumented college students experience a form of insurgent citizenship, one that challenges dominant ideology and demands an inclusive reconceptualization of the basic tenets of citizenship.

Questions to Consider:
  1. Define: formal citizenship, substantive citizenship, and insurgent citizenship.  Why are these distinctions important?
  2. How is citizenship “continually constituted and challenged through political struggle”?
  3. Why are immigrants entitled to full civil, political, and social rights, including higher education?


Klandermans, B., Van der Toorn, J., & Van Stekelenburg, J. (2008). Embeddedness and Identity: How Immigrants Turn Grievances into Action. American Sociological Review, 73(6), 992-1012.

Arguing that the social and political integration of Muslim immigrants into Western societies is among the most pressing problems of today, the authors detail research that documents how immigrant communities are increasingly under pressure to assimilate to their “host” societies. 

Questions to Consider:
  1. What special risks do immigrants, particularly Muslim immigrants, face when they begin any form of collective action?
  2. What are the five different antecedents of protest participation identified by the authors?  How does each increase the investment of the individual in collective action?
  3. How does the increased pressure to assimilate lead immigrants into engaging in collective action?
  4. What are the factors the authors extracted as meaningful from the literature on collective action?  What are the moderator and mediator effects that qualify these relationships?


Iceland, J., & Nelseon, K. (2008). Hispanic Segregation in Metropolitan America: Exploring the Multiple Forms of Spatial Assimilation. American Sociological Review, 73(5), 741-765.

Using data from the 2000 Census, the authors calculate Hispanics’ levels of residential segregation by race and nativity to examine the association of group characteristics with those patterns.  They find that Hispanics experience multiple and concurrent forms of spatial assimilation across generations, with some exceptions, suggesting that race continues to influence segregation despite the general strength of assimilation-related factors.

Questions to Consider:
  1. Why is the term “Hispanic” ambiguous?  What social factors does the term mask?
  2. Describe the general patterns of segregation found in this study.
  3. Why do Hispanic race groups show particularly low levels of segregation from native-born Hispanics not of their own race?  What specific social and cultural factors explain this phenomenon?



Restifo, S., Roscigno, V., & Qian, Z. (2013). Segmented Assimilation, Split Labor Markets, and Racial/Ethnic Inequality: The Case of Early-Twentieth-Century New York. American Sociological Review, 78(5), 897-924.

This article examines the intersection of labor markets and employment trajectories and rewards by analyzing racial and ethnic inequalities as they were found in New York City in the years 1910 to 1930.  The authors ask whether there is a clear and demonstrated racial/ethnic hierarchy and group-level variations relative to industrial concentration, segregation, and discrimination.  They illustrate the exclusionary constraints as experienced by both new white ethnics and African Americans.  They conclude with an examination of the embedded nature of assimilation in the context of labor market opportunities and relative to historical and contemporary eras.

Questions to Consider:
  1. What is segmented assimilation as defined by the authors?  How was this experienced by racial/ethnic minorities in New York?
  2. What is a split labor market?  Have the authors supported their point that there was a clear racial/ethnic hierarchy?
  3. Explain what the authors mean by “the embedded nature of assimilation in the context of labor market opportunities and relative to historical and contemporary eras.”


DiPietro, S., Slocum, L., & Esbensen, F. (2014). School Climate and Violence: Does Immigrant Status Matter? Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 1-24.

This article takes up the question of whether and to what extent school context is a predictor of violent delinquency for both immigrant and nonimmigrant youth.  Using data from several programs for at-risk youth, the authors assess the impact of four measures of school climate on violent delinquency.

Questions to Consider:
  1. What specifically do the authors mean by school context?
  2. Why is school context an important predictor of student behavior?
  3. What were the authors’ findings about school context and violent delinquency?