SAGE Journal Articles
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Article 1: Carter, Timothy J. (December 2004). Force Against and by Game Wardens In Citizen Encounters. Police Quarterly, 7(4): 489-508.
This article provides a descriptive analysis of assaults against and force by game wardens. Statewide data were provided by Virginia’s Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. Spatial, temporal, and situational factors are examined and some comparisons to police are provided. Distinct spatial and temporal patterns are evident. Attempting an arrest and rendering assistance are the most dangerous situations for assaults on wardens. The strongest factor precipitating assault is offender’s behavior. The strongest predictor of use of force is the presence of other police and offender’s resistance. Important differences between wardens and police in the use of weapons and injury are identified. Important organizational and situational differences shape the uniqueness of wildlife and conservation law enforcement.
Article 2: Vindevogel, Franck (August 2005). Private security and urban crime mitigation: A bid for BIDs. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 5(3): 233-255.
This article identifies Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) as new actors of urban policing and analyzes the relatively unknown contribution of their security divisions to public safety. Over the past two decades, property owners and corporate leaders in hundreds of business districts across the United States have banded together to change people’s negative perceptions about downtown. Contrary to all appearances, BIDs have not established a private crime fighting force, but instead have strived to eliminate all signs of physical and behavioral disorders to prevent crime and reassure the public. In doing so, the private sector has implemented the principles of the broken windows theory even before they influenced American policing. This innovative and non-confrontational approach that BIDs have opted for explains why police departments and debt-ridden municipalities have tolerated and sometimes even encouraged the intrusion of private security into public space.