SAGE Journal Articles
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Abstract: Given the scope and intent of Maslow's work, the current textbook treatment is wanting. Therefore, an inductive exercise has been created and is offered here to build “the road map of human nature.” This age-old, philosophic focus on our true nature has been a way to successfully engage and inspire both our students and our pedagogy. In the spirit of Maslow, the meaning of self-actualization is explored, and the understanding and managing of motivation is embedded into the larger context of leadership, for example, quality, spirituality, ethics, self-awareness, and personal growth.
Abstract: Based on Mitchell and Silver’s (1990) tower-building paradigm, the authors performed two experiments on multilevel quantity goals, strategies, and performance in task-interdependent groups. The study compared four goal types: IG (individual goal), GG (group goal), IG + GG (individual + group goal), and NSG (nonspecific goal). IG yielded low cooperation and performance, whereas, unexpectedly, NSG yielded high cooperation and performance. To explain this finding, we discerned two goal-setting components: Goal referent (performance-level targeted; individual/group) and goal specificity. Mediation analyses suggest that referent triggers a cooperation/competition mechanism, explaining the lower IG performance, whereas specificity triggers a speed/ accuracy mechanism, explaining the higher NSG performance. We conclude that individual goals can interfere with cooperative processes and group performance, and, for time-constrained interdependent tasks requiring speed and accuracy, specific difficult quantity goals may promote risk taking, thereby obstructing goal attainment.
Abstract: Groups rarely use the unique knowledge of their members when making decisions, focusing instead on knowledge that members have in common. This tendency to neglect the expertise of group members severely limits the effectiveness of group decision making. Previously, this problem has been addressed by showing that groups will pool task-relevant information and make effective decisions if members have knowledge of each other’s expertise. However, these studies are generally limited because they disregard why people use each other’s expertise once they are aware of it. The current study uses expectancy theory to investigate this issue and to link motivation to information exchange in groups. Results of a hidden profile study involving 40 groups indicated that expectancy motivation drives groups to use expertise awareness, exchange more unique information, and thus solve a hidden profile problem correctly.