SAGE Journal Articles

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Journal Article 2.1: Stein, D. E. (2012). The scientific method after nextWorld Futures Review4, 34–41.


Abstract: Like the religions and creation myths that predated it, contemporary science provides a framework for attempting to understand the universe. Replacing faith-based dogma with a new consensus-based authority grounded in repeatable experiment and observation, science itself is based on a protocol known as the scientific method. Yet now, science, mathematics, and even logic are shaking their own foundations, with profound implications not only for the scientific method as a means of understanding the universe, but also for the relationship between science, religion, and mysticism. For example, recent advances in quantum physics, and continual reinterpretations of earlier findings, are calling into question the notion of the detached observer—a notion fundamental to the contemporary scientific method—as well as the reductionistic approach of attempting to understand an entirety in terms of its components. Other findings indicate that uncertainty, randomness, and inconsistency may be basic to nature, with pervasive implications to the predictive and descriptive capability of science. Science, in turn, is underpinned by mathematics and logic, which are axiomatic in nature and thus limited by Gödel's theorem, an implication of which is that axioms are ultimately unprovable. In a striking parallel with some Western religions, the axioms themselves are accepted by consensus and “on faith.” Beyond these gatekeepers to knowledge lies yet another. Stated differently, “This far and no further.” Like religion, science may hold mysteries that are beyond human reach. Increasing studies of consciousness, intuitive processes, and some of the healing modalities can be expected to magnify the self-impacts of scientific research. This is because these studies generally do not yield the repeatable results that the scientific method demands. It is envisioned that the scientific method will need to evolve to encompass subjective experiences that have traditionally been regarded as outside its realm—perhaps starting with a framework that recognizes the interconnectedness of the observer and the observed. This paper explores the scientific findings that will shape the research protocols of tomorrow and the parallel and synergistic cultural, social, and academic trends.

Journal Article 2.2: Murphy, S. C. (2017). A hands-on guide to conducting psychological research on Twitter. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 8, 396–412.


Abstract: The rising popularity of social media has created valuable opportunities for researchers to quickly and cheaply tap large amounts of data on naturalistic social interactions. One of the most useful and accessible sources of social media data is Twitter. Although Twitter data are free to access, however, the programming tools required to collect and analyze these data are likely to create a barrier for many psychologists. The goal of this article is to reduce that barrier by explaining what data are available from Twitter and providing code and step-by-step instructions to retrieve them. I also review approaches to deriving psychological insight from these data, the accompanying challenges, and potential solutions, providing code to make these tasks easier. Particularly for researchers without access to large participant pools, overseas collaborators, or online panels, Twitter can be an important source of psychological insight.