SAGE Journal Articles

Journal Article 1  Williamson, J., & Campbell, L. (1987). Stress in the Principalship: What Causes It? NASSP Bulletin, 71(500), 109-112.

Abstract: What causes stress in the high school principalship? A survey by the authors indicates that four main factors contribute to principal's stress. The majority of the stress stems from demands on the principal's time.

Journal Article 2  Gulwadi, G. B. (2006). Seeking Restorative Experiences: Elementary School Teachers’ Choices for Places that Enable Coping with Stress. Environment and Behavior, 38(4), 503-520.

Abstract: Teacher stress and coping research and restorative environments research were converged in this study to explore how elementary school teachers in Chicago seek out everyday places in their milieu to implement restorative coping strategies. Seventy-one survey responses revealed that teachers' spontaneous place choices are related to sources of stress and that the restorative potential of a place was related to its ability to support teachers' inward or outward coping strategies. Teachers implemented effective strategies in places such as home, nature, city places, third places, and church. The ways these places were experienced differed according to teachers' perceptions of frequency and type of stress and how the place enabled the inward or outward strategy as needed. Findings suggest directions for exploring restorative design interventions in teachers' environments, especially within school environments.

Journal Article 3  Wells, T., Colbert, S., & Slate, R. N. (2006). Gender Matters: Differences in State Probation Officer Stress. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 22(1), 63-79.

Abstract: The causes of stress for criminal justice practitioners, including probation officers, can generally be categorized into four areas: internal to the organization, external to the organization, the job or task itself, or personal in nature. Historically, criminal justice agencies have been characterized as male-dominated organizations. However, the presence of females in the criminal justice arena is growing, as evidenced in this project. The purpose of this analysis is to examine female and male perceptions of stress among what has been a predominately male-occupied position, probation officers. Overall, the findings suggest that female probation officers exhibit greater signs of physical stress yet, remarkably, reflect lower levels of occupational stress in the study at hand. With the limitations of this study in mind, prospects for further research are delineated.

Journal Article 4  Scott, Y. M. (2004). Stress among Rural and Small-Town Patrol Officers: A Survey of Pennsylvania Municipal Agencies.

Abstract: Previous studies on police stress have focused mainly on urban officers, and attention afforded to rural and small-town police is virtually nonexistent. To address this gap in the literature, five distinct stress scales were constructed to examine 135 rural and small-town patrol officers’ experiences. The OLS regression results suggest that perceived disruptive administrative changes significantly increased officers’ stress experiences on a number of different dimensions, ranging from perceived maltreatment within the department to inherent aspects of the job. However, changes to the department’s top management positions were most strongly predictive of stress stemming from the organization. Perceived media criticism was positive in its significant effect on two of the five stress scales, general aspects of police work, and danger or violence. Department size was also linked to organizational stress.

Journal Article 5  Ganster, D. C., & Rosen, C. C. (2013). Work Stress and Employee Health: A Multidisciplinary Review. Journal of Management, 39(5), 1085-1122.

Abstract: Research examining the relationship between work stress and well-being has flourished over the past 20 years. At the same time, research on physiological stress processes has also advanced significantly. One of the major advances in this literature has been the emergence of the Allostatic Load model as a central organizing theory for understanding the physiology of stress. In this article, the Allostatic Load model is used as an organizing framework for reviewing the vast literature that has considered health outcomes that are associated with exposure to psychosocial stressors at work. This review spans multiple disciplines and includes a critical discussion of management and applied psychology research, epidemiological studies, and recent developments in biology, neuroendocrinology, and physiology that provide insight into how workplace experiences affect well-being. The authors critically review the literature within an Allostatic Load framework, with a focus on primary (e.g., stress hormones, anxiety and tension) and secondary (e.g., resting blood pressure, cholesterol, body mass index) mediators, as well as tertiary disease end points (e.g., cardiovascular disease, depression, mortality). Recommendations are provided for how future research can offer deeper insight into primary Allostatic Load processes that explain the effects of workplace experiences on mental and physical well-being.

Journal Article 6  Byrne, U. (2005). Wheel of Life: Effective Steps for Stress Management. Business Information Review, 22(2), 123-130.

Abstract: This continues the author’s previous article, in which the concept of work-life balance was described and defined as a way of tackling the problem of increasing amounts of stress in the workplace as people try to juggle a wide range of factors in their life/work environment, including: work; family; friends; health; and spirit/self. (Byrne, 2005). Reviews the major factors involved in stress, with suggestions about ways of managing it. Notes that the term has become overworked to cover a wide range of aspects of modern living, putting forward some possible reasons why this has come about. Attempts to place stress in the health context of why certain types of stress can be good for the individual and why others can be bad. The typical signs of stress are listed in some detail, with a discussion of how such symptoms can impinge on the quality of an employee’s work through its effect on physical well-being, mental abilities and behaviour. Describes how excessive stress can be traced to: excessive workload; the assumption that staff can read an individual’s mind; bullying; continual change; lack of challenge; constant interruptions; and poor internal communication. The article concludes that the problems of stress can be overcome through the application of a simple tool called the ‘Wheel of Life’, which can indicate where the imbalances lie in an individual’s life at present and point to ways of addressing them. The Wheel of Life, a familiar concept in many religious and spiritual cultures, represents the constant movement and change in life and comprises a wheel/circle divided into eight segments into which the individual places the top eight top priorities currently in force in their life. The wheel/circle then forms the central part of a plan for stress relief and ways in which it can be applied are described.