SAGE Journal Articles

Journal Article 1  Dunham, R. G., & Alpert, G. P. (2009). Officer and Suspect Demeanor: A Qualitative Analysis of Change. Police Quarterly, 12(1), 6-21.

Abstract: This study explores police–citizen encounters and the reaction of each actor to the demeanor of the other throughout the interaction. Police–citizen interactions can be understood as a sequence of events, often changing rapidly and making transitions from being trivial to serious exchanges. The sequence of actions and reactions is designed to support the expectations of both actors. Although we understand that these interactions are guided or driven by the actor's needs and abilities to influence, and even coerce, each other, we are not clear on the precise definition or role of the actors' demeanor. Most previous research has been limited to a measure of demeanor at one point in time. Our design allowed for measurement of changes in demeanor as the police–citizen interaction developed, and our examination revealed that the demeanor of both officers and suspects changed during the encounters in a substantial number of cases.

Journal Article 2  Burke, W. W. (2011). A Perspectiive on the Field of Organization Development and Change: The Zeigarnik Effect. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 47(2), 143-167.

Abstract: Essentially, and perhaps arguably, there has been no innovation in the social technology of organization development (OD) since appreciative inquiry originated in 1987. It is as if the creative work of OD is done. Moreover, it is as if the mission of OD--to loosen tightly coupled systems, think large bureaucracies--has largely been achieved. Decentralization, involvement, and autonomy on the job are commonplace in many organizations. There is a paradox, however. The need for expertise in organization change has never been greater, and OD has so much to contribute, yet the failure rate for organization change efforts is around 70%, and for mergers and acquisitions the failure rate is even larger. The premise of this article is that there is much work yet to be done. We who identify ourselves with the field of OD have unfinished business. As research on the Zeigarnik effect showed, we tend to remember things undone more than we remember things that have been completed. A purpose of this article is to create a Zeigarnik effect. Four domains of unfinished business in the field are identified and explored. There are no doubt many other domains, but these four definitely need attention. We need to know much more than we now know about how to (a) work with loosely coupled systems, (b) change the culture of an organization, (c) identify and deal with perceived resistance to change more effectively, and (d) get leadership development right--it is not about training.

Journal Article 3  O’Toole, Jr., L. J., & Meier, K. J. (2009). The Human Side of Public Organizations: Contributions to Organizational Performance. The American Review of Public Administration, 39(5), 499-518.

Abstract: Researchers in recent years have focused systematically on whether public management matters in the performance of public organizations. Internal management of organizations' human capital is one such managerial function, and a growing literature argues for its importance in delivering results. A management-and-performance model available in the literature suggests an approach to test empirically for this relationship. Here evidence from hundreds of public organizations over a 4-year period is assembled toward that end. Even when a number of other aspects of management are included, the management of human capital is related positively to virtually all performance indicators. The findings validate arguments in the recent literature of the field and emphasize the importance for performance of public organizations' investing in their people.

Journal Article 4  Kickert, W. J. M. (2014). Specificity of Change Management in Public Organizations: Conditions for Successful Organizational Change in Dutch Ministerial Departments. The American Review of Public Administration, 44(6), 693-717.

Abstract: This article is about the specificity of change management in public organizations. We analyze change management in a core-governmental type of public organization, that is, ministerial departments. Using six case studies of ministerial reorganizations, we address the question what specific characteristics the conditions for successful organizational change can have there. The case studies show that some of the success conditions did apply to these public organizations, some could be refined and specified, and others did not apply. The case studies also show that the conditions for successful organizational change were not the major explanations for success and failure of change. Change management in this type of public organization is not simply a straightforward application of generic management science insights.

Journal Article 5  Fernandez, S., & Pitts, D. W. (2007). Under What Conditions do Public Managers Favor and Pursue Organizational Change? The American Review of Public Administration, 37(3), 324-341.

Abstract: Managerial leaders play a prominent role in organizational change--as champions for change and as key players in its implementation. This study seeks to understand why public managers choose to support change and initiate it within their organizations. A model of change-related attitude and behavior is developed and tested in the study. The results indicate that a complex pattern of internal and external factors influence a public manager's attitude and behavior relating to change. The results also suggest that top-down and bottom-up drivers of change work simultaneously to influence a public manager's decision to assume the role of a change agent.