SAGE Journal Articles
Click on the following links. Please note these will open in a new window.
Journal Article 1: Martin, M. E. (2010). Philosophical and religious influence on social welfare policy in the United States: The ongoing effect of reformed theology and social Darwinism on attitudes toward the poor and social welfare policy and practice. Journal of Social Work, 12(1), 51-64.
Abstract: This article explores the historical and contemporary philosophical and religious influences of social welfare policy and programs in the United States. A discussion of Weber’s critique of Calvin’s Reformed theology and the profound influence of Calvin’s Reformed theology, including the concept of predestination and the Protestant work ethic, as well as the influence of Spencer’s social Darwinism on US social policy. Elements of early ideological bias that reflected the moral failure of the poor are discussed with regard to early poor care and the Charity Organization Society movement, and are contrasted with the more pragmatic and compassionate approach of Jane Addams’s Settlement House movement. Findings: An argument is made that a resurgence of social Darwinism and secularized Reformed theology is currently reflected in contemporary political and economic movements, including welfare reform measures in PRWORA of 1996, and the related TANF program, which has had a devastating effect on the economically disadvantaged populations in the United States. Application: Since social workers are on the front lines of social welfare policy development and practice, implication for social work education and practice are discussed emphasizing the importance of increased awareness of such damaging ideologies. Such awareness will lead to increased political discourse and advocacy for social welfare policy development and practice congruent with social work values.
Abstract: Research on globalization and education involves the study of intertwined worldwide discourses, processes, and institutions affecting local educational practices and policies. The four major theoretical perspectives concerning globalization and education are world culture, world systems, postcolonial, and culturalist. The major global educational discourses are about the knowledge economy and technology, lifelong learning, global migration or brain circulation, and neoliberalism. The major institutions contributing to global educational discourses and actions are the World Bank, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the United Nations, and UNESCO. International testing, in particular the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study and Programme for International Student Assessment, and instruction in English as the language of commerce are contributing to global uniformity of national curricula. Critics of current global trends support educational alternatives that will preserve local languages and cultures, ensure progressive educational practices that will protect the poor against the rich, and protect the environment and human rights.
Abstract: Issues of spirituality and religion are seldom discussed in the globalization context. Spirituality and religion affect the globalization phenomenon and are, in turn, significantly influenced by globalization. This article explores the interplay between spirituality and religion, and the forces of economics, technology, and globalization. Contemporary globalization exhibits five main trends in spirituality and religion: increasing attempts to harness religion and spirituality as means toward reterritorialization, the integration of spirituality in all aspects of life, a greater thrust toward the individualization of spirituality among consumers, the enhanced role of cyberspace in the spiritual domain, and the syncretization of spirituality. These five trends affect quality of life as well as the relationship between governments and markets, two areas of interest to macromarketers.
Abstract: The terrorist attack on the United States on September 11, 2001, demonstrated that we live in an interdependent, vulnerable, and fragile global village. This village, however, does not enjoy the intimacy of face-to-face communication among the villagers. We live in a largely mediated world ruled by government media monopolies or commercial media oligopolies that construct images of “the other.” Promotion of particular commodities and identities are the main preoccupations of the two commercial and government systems. The two systems thus tend to exacerbate international tensions by dichotomizing, dramatizing, and demonizing “them” against “us.” Is there an alternative media system to promote peace journalism for international and intercultural understanding? This article argues that ethically responsible journalism is a sine qua non of peace journalism. The locus of most media ethics has hitherto been the individual journalist. But the individual journalist operates in the context of institutional, national, and international regimes. In a globalized world, media ethics must be negotiated not only professionally but also institutionally, nationally, and internationally. Such ethics must be based on international agreements that have already established the right to communicate as a human right. However, ethics without commensurate institutional frameworks and sanctions often translate into pious wishes. To obtain a pluralism of content to reflect the diversity and complexity of the world, this article calls for a pluralism of media structures at the local, national, and global levels. The article concludes with pro posals to promote peace journalism through greater freedom, balance, and diversity in media representations.
Journal Article 5: Khang, H., Ki, E.-J., & Ye, L. (2012). Social media research in advertising, communication, marketing, and public relations, 1997-2010. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 89(2), 279-298.
Abstract: Drawing upon the social media phenomena in both practical and academic arenas, this study explored patterns and trends of social media research over the past fourteen years across four disciplines. Findings exhibit a definite increasing number of social-media-related studies. This indicates that social media have gained incremental attention among scholars, and who have, in turn, been responding and keeping pace with the increased usage and impact of this new medium. The authors suggest that future scholarly endeavors emphasize prospective aspects of social media, foreseeing applications and technological progress and elaborating theory.