Learning Objectives

  • Describe the origins of early modern prisons
  • Evaluate the two predominate prison systems of the early 1800s and their strengths and weaknesses
  • Summarize what the social critics (Beaumont, Tocqueville, and Dix) thought of the early prisons and why
  • Explain why reform of prisons and jails was needed and how those reform efforts worked out
  • Assess where we are today in America in terms of prison types and how we got there
  • Describe the prevailing themes in correctional history