Learning Objectives

  • Identify the four steps of hypothesis testing.
  • Define null hypothesis, alternative hypothesis, level of significance, test statistic, p value, and statistical significance.
  • Define Type I error and Type II error, and identify the type of error that researchers control.
  • Calculate the one-sample z test and interpret the results.
  • Distinguish between a one-tailed and a two-tailed test, and explain why a Type III error is possible only with one-tailed tests.
  • Explain what effect size measures and compute a Cohen’s d for the one-sample z test.
  • Define power and identify six factors that influence power.
  • Summarize the results of a one-sample z test in American Psychological Association (APA) format.