# Learning Objectives

• Explain why ordinal data are computed using nonparametric tests.
• Compute the one-sample and related samples sign test and interpret the results.
• Compute the normal approximation for the sign test.
• Compute the Wilcoxon signed-ranks T test and interpret the results.
• Compute the normal approximation for the Wilcoxon signed-ranks T test.
• Compute the Mann-Whitney U test and interpret the results.
• Compute the normal approximation for the Mann-Whitney U test.
• Compute the Kruskal-Wallis H test and interpret the results.
• Compute the Friedman test and interpret the results.
• Summarize the results of nonparametric tests for ordinal data in APA format.
• Compute the related samples sign test, the Wilcoxon signed-ranks T test, the Mann-Whitney U test, the Kruskal-Wallis H test, and the Friedman test using SPSS.