SAGE Journal Articles
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Parallel processing in the human brain is subject to severe attentional limits, but it is unclear whether such limits arise from a single attentional process or multiple distinct attentional processes We provide new evidence that two candidates, input attention and central attention, operate at different temporal stages of processing This conclusion is supported by chronometric analyses showing that the same reference stage (letter identification) operates after the stage at which input attention operates, but prior to the stage at which central attention operates The finding that attention operates at different temporal loci provides new support for the existence of distinct attentional processes
We challenge the prevailing notion that risk taking is a stable trait, such that individuals show consistent risk-taking/aversive behavior across domains. We subscribe to an alternative approach that appreciates the domain-specific nature of risk taking. More important, we recognize heterogeneity of risk profiles among experimental samples and introduce a new methodology that takes this heterogeneity into account. Rather than using a convenient subject pool (i.e., university students), as is typically done, we specifically targeted relevant subsamples to provide further validation of the domain-specific nature of risk taking. Our research shows that individuals who exhibit high levels of risk-taking behavior in one content area (e.g., bungee jumpers taking recreational risks) can exhibit moderate levels in other risky domains (e.g., financial). Furthermore, our results indicate that risk taking among targeted subsamples can be explained within a cost-benefit framework and is largely mediated by the perceived benefit of the activity, and to a lesser extent by the perceived risk.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of adapting group-based interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-G) for patients with chronic post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Methods: Thirteen subjects with DSM-IV-defined PTSD, with symptom duration greater than 12 months, entered the study, an 8-week treatment programme conducted in a clinical setting using IPT-G modified for the treatment of PTSD. Data obtained were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively.
Results: All 13 subjects completed the treatment programme and showed significant improvement in social functioning, general wellbeing and depressive symptoms. Treatment completers demonstrated a moderate reduction in the avoidant symptom cluster of PTSD. These improvements appeared stable at 3-month follow-up. Benefits appeared to be associated with perceived intra-therapy progress in resolving identified IPT problem areas. Qualitative analysis found that themes of ‘reconnection’ and ‘interpersonal efficacy’ were core parts of the experience of the treatment.
Conclusion: IPT-G modified for PTSD appears to be of modest symptomatic benefit, but may lead to improvement in social functioning, general psychological wellbeing and enhanced interpersonal functioning. Further studies are indicated.