Review Questions

  1. What researchers are most associated with leader–member exchange theory?
  2. Explain the differences between in-groups and out-groups.
  3. How did the focus of research change from early research studies to the later studies?
  4. What were the findings of the Gerstner and Day (1997) meta-analysis?
  5. How does communicating through technology at work affect leader–follower relationships?
  6. What support is there for the validity of the LMX 7 Questionnaire?
  7. Explain the concept of leadership making, including each phase.
  8. What is meant by the term “empowerment” and how does it relate to LMX?
  9. What strategy do researchers typically use to evaluate leader–member exchanges?
  10. How can leaders best determine how trustworthy or reliable their followers are?
  11. Explain how leader–member exchange theory works, both descriptively and prescriptively.
  12. What is the relationship between LMX and employee energy and creativity?
  13. What are strengths of leader–member exchange theory?
  14. What are criticisms of leader–member exchange theory?
  15. How can LMX be applied to different levels of an organization?