SAGE Journal Articles
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Journal Article 1: Wolfram, H. J., & Gratton, L. (2014). Gender role self-concept, categorical gender, and transactional-transformational leadership: Implications for perceived workgroup performance. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21, 338–353.
Abstract: Prior research has shown that female managers are more likely to display transactional–transformational leadership, but they are less likely than their male colleagues to benefit from this in terms of leadership effectiveness. The aim of this study is to address this intriguing finding. Our expectations were that female managers need masculinity so that their leadership can display positive effects on perceived workgroup performance, whereas androgyny would be advantageous in male managers. We collected data from 67 workgroups, and asked managers to report on their gender role self-concept as well as workgroup performance, and 473 workgroup members to report on their manager’s leadership style. Our analyses revealed that, expectedly, androgyny might be advantageous in male managers using contingent reward, intellectual stimulation, and charisma/inspiration. For female managers, however, a lack of gender-typical attributes might be disadvantageous, especially when using charisma/inspiration.
Journal Article 2: Kirton, G., & Healy, G. (2012). ‘Lift as you rise:’ Union women’s leadership talk. Human Relations, 65, 979–999.
Abstract: There is now an abundant and rich literature on gender and leadership in the corporate context, where concepts of masculine and feminine leadership are widely debated. This article provides a bridge between this literature and the women and unions literature, where women’s leadership is under-researched but where feminist strategies are widely discussed. The article uses the relatively novel lens of masculine, feminine and feminist leadership for interpreting the leadership talk of an ethnically diverse group of American and British union women. We argue that when women lead in heavily masculinized settings, their leadership discourses and orientations are almost bound to reflect the dominant culture. The study reveals that while there is a discursive space within unions for alternative (feminine and feminist) visions of leadership, in practice women union leaders also engage in different combinations (often simultaneously) of (masculine) status quo and (feminine and feminist) transformative leadership talk.
Journal Article 3: Bligh, M. C., Kohles, J. C. (2008). Negotiating gender role expectations: Rhetorical leadership and women in the US Senate. Leadership, 4, 381–402.
Abstract: The historical paucity of US women senators has provided little opportunity to study women at one of the highest and most prestigious leadership levels. Through a content analysis of 12 months of public discourse in a variety of media, we explore the rhetorical leadership of women senators as they carry out their elected roles. Results indicate that women senators use significantly less aggressive and more ambivalent speech when compared to political norms, and are less likely to use terms denoting accomplishment, praise and human interest. Overall, our results suggest that women continue to feel the effects of gender stereotypes and expectations in higher levels of political office, and these effects may have important negative implications for perceptions of their leadership and effectiveness.