SAGE Journal Articles

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Journal Article 1: Emery, C., Calvard, T. S., & Pierce, M. E. (2013). Leadership as an emergent process: A social network study of personality and leadershipGroup Processes & Intergroup Relations16, 28–45.

Abstract: A longitudinal study was conducted on the social network of a leaderless group to explore how Big Five personality traits affect leadership emergence, in the form of receiver ties (being nominated as a leader), sender ties (nominating others as leaders), and similarity effects (nominating similar/different others as leaders). Forty one students on a 3-month study abroad program participated in intensive group work, and their perceptions of emergent task- and relationship-oriented leadership within these groups were assessed three times across the life cycle of the group. Results indicated that individuals scoring higher on extraversion, openness to experience, and conscientiousness were nominated more as task- and relationship-oriented leaders, whereas those who were more agreeable were more likely to emerge as relationship-oriented leaders. In terms of emergent followership, group members who were more agreeable and neurotic (and less open to experience) were less likely to follow relationship-oriented leaders, whereas more conscientious individuals were more likely to follow task-oriented leaders. With respect to the effects of complementarity and similarity, both task- and relationship-oriented leader nominations were based on dissimilar levels of agreeableness between leaders and followers, whereas nominated relationship-based leaders tended to have similar levels of openness to experience to followers. Implications of these results are discussed.

Journal Article 2: McCabe, K. O., & Fleeson, W. (2012). What is extraversion for? Integrating trait and motivational perspectives and identifying the purpose of extraversionPsychological Science23, 1498–1505.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the manifestation of extraversion (i.e., acting and being extraverted) in everyday behavior can be explained by intentional (functional) constructs, namely, goals. By using a model in which personality states serve as an outcome of specific, momentary goal pursuit, we were able to identify the function of extraversion states in everyday behavior. Using experience-sampling methodology, we asked participants to describe their state extraversion, goal pursuit, and state affect over 10 days. Results show that 18 selected goals predicted 74% of the variance in state extraversion; both within-person and between-person fluctuations in state extraversion were strongly associated with changes in momentary goal pursuit. We extended findings relating state extraversion and state positive affect, showing that the relationship between goals and positive affect was partially mediated by state extraversion.

Journal Article 3: Redfern, S., Coster, S., Evans, A., & Dewe, P. (2010). An exploration of personal initiative theory in the role of consultant nursesJournal of Research in Nursing15, 435–453.

Abstract: The aim in this paper is to investigate the contribution personal initiative theory makes in understanding the consultant nurse role. The role was introduced in the UK in 2000 to improve patient outcomes, clinical leadership and retention of experienced clinicians. A larger study used a multi-method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data from focus groups, interviews and a questionnaire administered nationally at two time points. Findings from longitudinal telephone interviews with 30 consultant nurses are the focus of this paper.

Three consultant nurses were selected as case studies to examine the potential of personal initiative theory when applied to new nursing roles. The activities of two of the three demonstrated a high level of personal initiative in the job. They persisted in overcoming problems faced in improving practice. The third scored lower: she emerged as a reactive conformist and less likely than the other two to pursue initiatives of her own.

Personal initiative theory has potential as a framework for evaluating the consultant nurse role, although further research is needed to test it. The longitudinal analysis revealed a determination to stay in the job and overcome difficult challenges when consultants show initiative and are making progress in achieving change.

Journal Article 4: Hegge, M. (2011). The empty carriage: Lessons in leadership from Florence NightingaleNursing Science Quarterly24, 21–25.

Abstract: Florence Nightingale made a profound statement about leadership when she returned from the Crimean War without the fanfare offered to her. Promoters paraded her empty carriage around the city of Southampton England to applaud her accomplishments in the war. Her absence signaled a new leadership, one of quiet determination, humility, and political strategy to improve quality of life. The lessons to be learned for today’s nurse leaders revolve around mindfulness, clarity of purpose, reverence for human life, collaborative partnerships, co-evolution, engagement, keeping up with a world in motion, and making meaning.

Journal Article 5: Kotze´, M., & Venter, I. (2011). Differences in emotional intelligence between effective and ineffective leaders in the public sector: An empirical studyInternational Review of Administrative Sciences77, 397–427.

Abstract: The literature supporting leadership as the most important factor related to organizational success or failure is burgeoning. To a large extent, this may explain why so much research focuses on factors influencing leadership effectiveness. A crucial aspect of leadership research is to determine why some individuals perform effectively in leadership roles while others demonstrate mediocre or low levels of effectiveness. Once measures of individual characteristics have been validated within a relevant context, they become useful sources of information for selecting, placing, and promoting people into leadership positions. The aim of this study was to determine if there are statistically significant differences in emotional intelligence between effective and ineffective leaders. The sample included 114 leaders at the middle management level in a public sector institution in South Africa. Each leader’s effectiveness was rated by themselves (self-rating), as well as by four subordinates, thus involving 570 participants. The EQ-i® was used as a measure of emotional intelligence, while Spangenberg and Theron’s Leadership Behaviour Inventory was used to determine leadership effectiveness. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the effective leaders scored significantly higher on the total emotional intelligence measure. They also scored significantly higher on two emotional intelligence composite scales (Interpersonal EQ and Stress Management EQ) and six sub-scales (Self-actualization, Empathy, Social Responsibility, Stress Tolerance, Problem-solving, and Optimism).