SAGE Journal Articles

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Journal Article 1: Beck, C. D. (2014). Antecedents of servant leadership: A mixed methods study. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies21, 299–314.

Abstract: This mixed methods study explored the antecedents of servant leadership. The sequential explanatory research design consisted of two distinct phases: quantitative followed by qualitative. The Phase 1 quantitative survey collected data from 499 leaders from community leadership programs and 630 raters using the Servant Leadership Questionnaire. During Phase 2, 12 selected leaders from Phase 1 were interviewed to explain the Phase 1 results in more depth. Four key findings emerged from the data: (a) the longer a leader is in a leadership role, the more frequent the servant leader behaviors; (b) leaders who volunteer at least 1 hour per week demonstrate higher servant leader behaviors; (c) servant leaders influence others through building trusting relationships; and (d) servant leaders demonstrate an altruistic mindset.

Journal Article 2: Barbuto, J. E., Gottfredson, R. K., & Searle, T. P. (2014). An examination of emotional intelligence as an antecedent of servant leadershipJournal of Leadership & Organizational Studies21, 315–323.

Abstract: Servant leadership is an approach to leadership that involves a leader’s deeply rooted desire to serve subordinates. As the need for more people-centered leadership evolves, organizations increasingly want leaders who are driven to serve the people they lead, and they are seeking ways to identify predictors of servant leadership to ensure that those they place in management positions possess the attributes of a servant leader. Until now, very little research has been conducted in this area. Thus, we investigated emotional intelligence as an antecedent of the different dimensions of servant leadership. Our findings, based on assessments of 75 civic leaders and 401 of their followers, suggest that emotional intelligence is a good predictor of a leader’s servant-leader ideology (or approach toward leadership) but may not be a good predictor of servant-leader behaviors as rated by the leaders’ followers.

Journal Article 3: Sturm, B. A. (2009). Principles of servant-leadership in community health nursing. Home Health Care Management & Practice21, 82–89.

Abstract: This article discusses the outcomes of a secondary analysis of ethnographic research data, focusing specifically on management issues and behaviors which can help the reader to visualize evidence-based examples of servant-leadership, a transformational leadership model that seeks to empower members of an organization to act as both servants and leaders within a work environment of mutual respect, trust, and collaboration. Participants included nurses, supervisors, administrators, and others observed and interviewed in the agency and nurses accompanied on home visits. Analysis revealed leadership behaviors and issues which are clarified through example(s) and sorted into three thematic categories: respect and valuing of one as a unique individual, affirmation of professional judgment and fair treatment regarding workload, and collaboration with supervisors and administrators in a spirit of willingness. A servant-leadership model can support personal and professional growth, empowering nurses to play a leadership role and thereby increasing nurse collaboration, satisfaction, and retention.

Journal Article 4: Searle, T. P., & Barbuto, J. E. (2011). Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies18, 107–117.

Abstract: This article proposes a framework for bridging servant leadership with the positive psychology field. In the framework, servant leadership facilitates both micro- and macro-positive behaviors in individuals, groups/teams, and organizations. Hope and organizational virtuousness are used as examples of micro- and macro-positive behaviors that may be optimized by servant leadership. This article describes the framework and its constructs, develops testable propositions, and provides opportunities for research applications.

Journal Article 5: Van Dierendonck, D. (2011). Servant leadership: A review and synthesisJournal of Management37, 1228–1261.

Abstract: Servant leadership is positioned as a new field of research for leadership scholars. This review deals with the historical background of servant leadership, its key characteristics, the available measurement tools, and the results of relevant studies that have been conducted so far. An overall conceptual model of servant leadership is presented. It is argued that leaders who combine their motivation to lead with a need to serve display servant leadership. Personal characteristics and culture are positioned alongside the motivational dimension. Servant leadership is demonstrated by empowering and developing people; by expressing humility, authenticity, interpersonal acceptance, and stewardship; and by providing direction. A high-quality dyadic relationship, trust, and fairness are expected to be the most important mediating processes to encourage self-actualization, positive job attitudes, performance, and a stronger organizational focus on sustainability and corporate social sresponsibility.