SAGE Journal Articles
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Abstract: Scholars have long held that Islamism—defined as a political ideology that demands the application of Islamic holy law and the deepening of religious identity—is in part a response to Western domination of Muslim lands. Drawing on the literatures on nationalism and international relations theory, we argue that Islamism is one of a menu of options that Muslims may adopt in response to Western hegemony—a menu that includes Arab nationalism and pro-Western accommodation. We hypothesize that a Muslim’s ideological response to Western domination is a function of the type of domination experienced—that is, military, cultural, or economic—as well as of individual-level characteristics such as intensity of religious practice. We test this hypothesis with a nationally representative survey experiment conducted in Egypt. We find that, among subjects in our study, pro-Western responses to Western domination were more common than “Islamist” or “nationalist” ones and that these were particularly driven by reminders of the West’s economic ascendancy. These findings suggest that foreign domination does not always yield defensive responses and often produces desires for greater cooperation with the hegemon.
Abstract: Prior research has established a link between ideology and lethality, both within the homicide and terrorism literatures. We examine this relationship as it pertains to the Global Jihadist Movement (GJM). Using a series of logit and negative binomial models with a sample from the Global Terrorism Database, we find that the GJM is indeed more deadly. However, this relationship does not seem to differentially affect Americans, despite their role as the GJM’s defined “other.”
Journal Article 7.3: Baumgartner, J. C., Francia, P. L., & Morris, J. S. (2008). A clash of civilizations? The influence of religion on public opinion of U.S. Foreign policy in the Middle East. Political Research Quarterly, 61(2), 171-179.
Abstract: The authors argue in this study that religious beliefs play a significant role in predicting American public opinion on foreign policy issues in the Middle East. Their findings reveal that Evangelical Christians have remained strong supporters of a hawkish foreign policy toward the Middle East, even as overall public support for the Iraq War declines. They also find that Evangelicals are among the strongest supporters of Israel and hold more negative views of Islam than others. These results reinforce the growing importance of the “faith factor” in public opinion and American politics as a whole.
Abstract: This paper aims to provide an overview of the psychology of individuals who join and engage in terrorism, and in particular of individuals who engage in jihadi-motivated terrorism such as that carried out by al-Qaeda and its affiliates. Based on the most reliable available evidence, this paper gives an account of the psychology and motivations of such individuals and the processes that facilitate and develop violent radicalization.
Levin, B. (2001, February). History as a weapon: How extremists deny the holocaust in North America. American Behavioral Scientist, 44(6), 1001-1031.
Silke, A. (2008, January). Holy warriors: Exploring the psychological processes of Jihadi radicalization. European Journal of Criminology, 5, 99-123.
Werbner, P. (2004). The predicament of diaspora and millennial Islam: Reflections on September 11, 2001. Ethnicities, 4(4), 451-476.