SAGE Journal Articles

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Journal Article 1.1: Cooper, H. H. A. (2001). Terrorism: The problem of definition revisited. American Behavioral Scientist, 44(6), 881-893.

Abstract: How can terrorism be defined when the process of defining is wholly frustrated by the presence of irreconcilable antagonisms? It is certainly not easy to define, much less comprehend. With respect to terrorism, there is among the many participants to the discussion no agreement on the basic nature of the fruit under consideration. In any case, the definition of terrorism has undergone a number of small refinements as experience has suggested. This article considers how to define terrorism or at least know it when it is seen in the coming decades.


Journal Article 1.2: Galicki, Z. (2005). International law and terrorism. American Behavioral Scientist, 48(6), 743-757.

Abstract: What important developments have occurred in multilateral international treaties between the Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Terrorism of 1937 and the Inter-American Convention Against Terrorism of 2002? This article answers this question as well as whether these laws have been an effective legal response in combating terrorism. After differentiating between comprehensive and sectoral conventions and between universal and regional conventions, the article comparatively analyzes them based on definitions of offenses, the extent of criminalization, exceptions concerning scope of application, measures to be taken by the states parties, obligatory and optional jurisdiction, obligations of states in the sphere of legal cooperation and assistance, rights of the offender, extradition, exceptions from extradition or legal assistance, and issues not covered by the conventions. Solutions proved to be the most effective against international terrorism and discrepancies and overlaps between the conventions are discussed.


Journal Article 1.3: Kalyvas, S. N. (2007). Ethnic cleavages and irregular war: Iraq and Vietnam. Politics & Society, 35(2), 183-223.

Abstract: The conflict in Iraq has been portrayed as “ethnic” civil war, a radically different conflict from “ideological” wars such as Vietnam. We argue that such an assessment is misleading, as is its theoretical foundation, which we call the “ethnic war model.” Neither Iraq nor Vietnam conforms to the ethnic war model’s predictions. The sectarian conflict between Shia and Sunni militias is not simply the outcome of sectarian cleavages in Iraqi society, but to an important extent, a legacy of U.S. occupation. On the other hand, although Vietnam was a society riven by ethnic cleavages, the Vietnam War also fails to conform to the ethnic war model. We show that there is no necessary overlap between ethnic conflict and ethnic war. Some ethnic conflicts evolve into ethnic wars, and others develop dynamics virtually indistinguishable from those of ideological civil wars. We suggest that the state's role is essential in transforming conflicts into either ethnic or irregular wars. We conclude with an analysis of the current situation and future prospects in Iraq.


Journal Article 1.4: Mills, C. E., Freilich, J. D., & Chermak, S. M. (2017). Extreme hatred: Revisiting the hate crime and terrorism relationship to determine whether they are “close cousins” or “distant relatives”. Crime & Delinquency, 63(10), 1191-1223

Abstract: Existing literature demonstrates disagreement over the relationship between hate crime and terrorism with some calling them “close cousins,” whereas others declare them “distant relatives.” We extend previous research by capturing a middle ground between hate crime and terrorism: extremist hate crime. We conduct negative binomial regressions to examine hate crime by non-extremists, fatal hate crime by far-rightists, and terrorism in U.S. counties (1992–2012). Results show that counties experiencing increases in general hate crime, far-right hate crime, and non-right-wing terrorism see associated increases in far-right hate crime, far-right terrorism, and far-right hate crime, respectively. We conclude that hate crime and terrorism may be more akin to close cousins than distant relatives.