SAGE Journal Articles

Journal Article 1: Marsh, A. A., Elfenbein, H. A., & Ambady, N., (2007). Separated by a common language: Nonverbal accents and cultural stereotypes about Americans and Australians. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38, 384–301.

Abstract: The expression of nonverbal cues may differ systematically across cultures. Common cues used in distinct ways cross-culturally may be termed nonverbal accents. The data in this study indicate that nonverbal accents can help perceivers to distinguish the nationality of expressers. In Study 1, American participants could determine the nationality of Australian and American adults with above-chance accuracy when viewing their emotional expressions but not neutral expressions. In Study 2, American participants could also determine the nationality of Australians and Americans seen walking or waving in greeting. The accuracy of nationality judgments was also correlated with the extent to which Australian targets were perceived to conform to stereotypes about Australians. It is argued that nonverbal accents may be a mechanism that perceivers can use to apply group stereotypes.

Journal Article 2: Peterson, R.T. (2005). An examination of the relative effectiveness of training in nonverbal communication: Personal selling implications. The Journal of Marketing Education, 27, 143–150.

Abstract: This article examines the potential effectiveness of training in nonverbal communication for sales representatives. The literature on this subject was reviewed, and a study using students as sales representatives was conducted to evaluate the potential of training in body language. The research results provide support for the proposition that such training can be of value in academic and practical applications.

Journal Article 3: Masumoto, T., (2004). Learning to ‘do time’ in Japan: A study of U.S. interns in Japanese Organizations. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 4, 19–37.

Abstract: In this study of the interactions between American interns and Japanese working in Japanese organizations in Japan, the influence of culturally different expectations, perceptions and meanings of time was explored. Through the interviews with interns and their Japanese co-workers and supervisors, five aspects of time were examined: (1) time and expectations; (2) time required for adaptation and productivity; (3) shared space and time, and meaning of socialization; (4) feedback and insecurity; and (5) short term and long-term vision. Through interviews conducted over a three year period, from predeparture throughout the 6–24 month internship period and at its conclusion, the experiences of 19 US interns working in 18 organizations along with 36 of their Japanese supervisors and co-workers were studied. Interns and supervisors differed greatly in their estimates of time needed for intern acceptance. US interns initially described too much idle time, uncertainty about when their workday ended, and anxiety related to the open, exposed, office and laboratory workspaces. Most disturbing to interns was what they saw as a lack of timely and explicit feedback from their supervisors; supervisors felt that they had provided continuous feedback and described a long-term vision for appraising the internship experience, even well after the intern had departed.

Journal Article 4: Ward, N. G., & Al Bayyar, Y. (2010). American and Arab perceptions of an Arabic turn-taking cue. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 41, 270–275.

Abstract: Languages differ in the way that speakers coordinate their interaction moment by moment, and this can cause intercultural misunderstandings. The authors explore this in the domain of listening behavior. One way that listeners show interest and attention is by producing back-channel feedback (short utterances such as okay and hmm) at appropriate times, and these times are determined, in part, by the interlocutor, who signals when such feedback is welcome with various cues. In Arabic these cues include a prosodic feature in the form of a steep continuous drop in pitch. This article shows that English speakers can misinterpret this, perceiving it as an expression of negative affect, and that this tendency can be substantially alleviated by training.

Journal Article 5: Greene, D. M., & Stewart, F. R. (2011). African American students’ reactions to Benjamin Cooke’s “Nonverbal communication among Afro-Americans: An initial classification”. Journal of Black Studies, 42, 389–401.

Abstract: The nonverbal communication behavior of Black people continues to take new forms as time progresses. In Kochman’s 1972 book, Rappin’ and Stylin’ Out: Communication in Urban Black America, Benjamin Cooke introduced an initial classification and code of nonverbal behaviors among people of African descent. In this study, students react to Cooke’s study conducted in the late 1960s by commenting on Cooke’s initial findings in comparison to nonverbal behaviors practiced among Black people as of late. Respondents suggest that while differences and variations exist between the expression of nonverbal behaviors exhibited by the original group studied and people recently observed, there yet remains a similarity in the cultural significance and motivation behind the displays.