SAGE Journal Articles

Journal Article 1: Packman, H.M., & Casmir, F.L. (1999). Learning from the Euro Disney experience: A case study in international/intercultural communication. International Communication Gazette, 61, 473–489.

Abstract: American businesses make assumptions about the transferability of their business, management, marketing, economic and structural models of organizing which frequently fail to take into consideration cultural differences. An example of the consequences of such an approach to intercultural business practice can be found in the Disney Corporation's recent European venture, now called Disneyland, Paris. Lack of cultural sensitivity and the negative infiltration strategy used by the Disney Corporation resulted in a great loss of time, money and reputation for which the corporation has only recently begun to compensate. It is the primary thesis of this article that the initial losses experienced by the Disney Corporation may have been prevented if only its representatives had known then what they know now: simply put, that organizations are not distinct, separate entities capable of functioning outside their physical, social and cultural environments. That insight, of course, calls for a different approach to international business, one which begins with the most basic aspect of human organizations, namely effective, meaningful, communicative interactions between people.

Journal Article 2: Auster, C. J., & Michaud, M. A. (2013). The Internet marketing of Disney theme parks: An analysis of gender and race. SAGE Open, 3, 1–16.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze the portrayal of gender and race in the images on the official Disney websites used to market five theme parks: the Disneyland Parks in California, Paris, Tokyo, and Hong Kong, and the Magic Kingdom in Florida. This is important because of the growth of e-commerce, Disney’s global influence, and the potential impact on those who view the images. The 452 images that had Disney human characters, human-like characters, animals, cast members, or guests were coded for gender. The main gender hypothesis, that the percentage of male-dominated images would exceed the percentage of female-dominated images, was tested using gender disparity values, which measured the gap between the percentage of male-dominated and female-dominated images. The hypothesis tended to be supported overall, and for most of the resorts (e.g., Florida), lands (e.g., Adventureland), and activities (attractions, entertainment, dining) for human characters, human-like characters, animals, and cast members, but not for guests. Furthermore, the hypotheses that gender disparity values would be highest for images of animals and lowest for images of guests was supported for all five resorts, six of eight lands, and all three activities. Additional analysis also revealed the preponderance of same-sex pairings in parent–child combinations in the images. With regard to race, while the images of some theme parks displayed more racial diversity among their guests than others, in some images, individuals of different races were shown interacting whereas in others they were not. Explanations for these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Journal Article 3: Wong, L. L., & Trumper, R., (2002). Global celebrity athletes and nationalism: Fútbol, hockey, and the representation of nation. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 26, 168–194.

Abstract: Globalization scholars have pointed to a world of increasing transnationalism and deterritorialization that contributes to new meanings of identity and citizenship as the nation-state declines. Sports, and their transnational labor migration, play an important role in both undermining and strengthening nations and national identities. In this context, this article examines two superstar and global celebrity athletes in the sports of fútbol and hockey: Iván Zamorano and Wayne Gretzky. The article shows that although Zamorano and Gretzky are prime examples of transnational citizens and global business persons, living in both national and transnational spaces, it is ambiguous, paradoxical, and contradictory that in Chile, Zamorano represents and symbolizes the essence of Chileaness and that in Canada, Gretzky is usually offered as the symbol of a true Canadian. These two global celebrity athletes embody transnational cultural and capitalist business practices and, at the same time, willingly serve as national cultural icons for the formation and reaffirmation of national identities.

Journal Article 4: Ustinova, I. (2008). English and American culture appeal in Russian advertising. Journal of Creative Communications, 3, 77–98.

Abstract: The article proposes that Russian advertising discourse offers prospective for examining the changes in Russian language and culture in the context of globalization. It focuses on the use of English in Russian advertising with an analysis of code-mixed samples drawn from recent print, Internet and TV advertisements. Strong evidence emerges that the main source of creativity in Russian advertisements is the mixing of English and Russian. English–Russian language mix is presented in abundance on the levels of words, sentences and phrases in the structural components of Russian advertisements. The proportion of English in advertisements is in alignment with gender and modernity. Nativization and assimilation of English also manifests itself in using Cyrillic script for language transfer. The English usage in the advertisements can be explained by utilitarian reasons, as the brand names and logo in English are promoted all over the world, and by social reasons, as English is a sign of high-quality products, novelty, prestige and even fun. By revealing age-specific English used in advertisements, the attempts are made to redefine a new ethnic identity. The phenomenon is interpreted according to possible ongoing changes of Russian ethnolinguistic identity.

Journal Article 5: Ram, U. (2007). Liquid identities: Mecca cola versus coca-cola. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 10, 465–484.

Abstract: The Mecca Cola drink combines in its brand name two contrasting iconic images: one signifies 'authenticity', whereas the other signifies a 'commodity'. The conspicuous juxtaposition of 'Mecca' and 'Cola' and their hyphenization evokes the question: what is becoming of 'authenticity' in a thoroughly commodified world society? This article proposes that a distinction ought to be drawn between the effects of commodification on two distinct levels: the structural and symbolic. Whereas commodification homogenizes structurally, it heterogenizes symbolically. This article maintains that while symbolically Mecca Cola is antagonistic to Coca-Cola, structurally it is a case of an appropriation of the former by the latter. Mecca Cola thus attests to a structural 'Cola-ization' accompanied by a symbolic 'Mecca-ization' of current world cultures.