SAGE Journal Articles

Journal Article 1: Towns, A. (2009). The status of women as a standard of ‘civilization’. European Journal of International Relations, 15, 681–706.

Abstract: This article focuses on the status of women as a standard of civilization by examining its emergence in the 19th-century European ‘society of civilized states.’ More specifically, the article centers on expectations about the proper political role of women and how these operated as a standard to distinguish ‘civilized’ states from other societies. The article shows that the political exclusion of women — not their inclusion — became expected behavior for ‘advanced’ societies at this time. To statesmen and social scientists alike, evidence from ‘savage’ society and an uncivilized European past demonstrated that women could not contribute to human advancement if given a political role. To arrive at this claim, the article examines the understandings that had come into place to make the political exclusion of women possible and reasonable for European and European settler states.

Journal Article 2: Critelli, F. M. (2010). Beyond the veil in Pakistan. Affilia, 25, 236–249.

Abstract: Pakistan became highly visible to the West after September 11, 2001, through the many images in the media of women as veiled, submissive, and oppressed by Islam. Most analyses of women in Pakistan have failed to capture the complexity of historical, social, political, and regional factors that bear on gender relations. Through a comprehensive review of the literature and data on human development, the author presents a critical multidimensional analysis of gender issues in Pakistan, with the goal of challenging stereotypes and deepening professional knowledge of global gender issues.

Journal Article 3: Plantenga, J., Remery, C., Figueiredo, H., & Smith, M., (2009). Towards a European Union Gender Equality Index. Journal of European Social Policy, 19, 19–33.

Abstract: In order to monitor progress with respect to gender equality in European Union member states, indices are extremely useful. Existing indices are, however, not appropriate because they do not focus exclusively on gender (in)equality and have not been created to be used at the European level. Therefore a European Union Gender Equality Index is presented in this article. Based on the universal caregiver model as outlined by Fraser (1997), the index is composed of four dimensions: equal sharing of paid work, money, decision-making power and time. With regard to the applied methodology, the index is constructed in such a way that the value indicates the actual distance from a situation of full equality. The empirical results show that full equality is still a long way off. Finland, Sweden and Denmark display the highest overall performance, whereas the southern countries — Greece, Cyprus, Malta, Spain and Italy — perform rather poorly.

Journal Article 4: Yodanis, C., (2005). Divorce culture and marital gender equality: A cross-national study. Gender & Society, 19, 644–659.

Abstract: This article examines the cross-national relationship between a divorce culture on a national level and gender equality in intact marriages. Based on multilevel analysis of data from 22 countries in the International Social Survey Programme, the results indicate that a divorce culture on the national level is associated with greater marital equality. In other words, in countries where divorce is accepted and practiced, the distribution of work between women and men in marriage is more equal. These findings support the enhanced equality hypothesis that the possibility of divorce provides women with leverage to gain more equal status within marriage.

Journal Article 5: Simon, S. (2011). Using ICTs to explore Moroccan women’s ideas about their emancipation. Gender, Technology, and Development, 15, 301–317.

Abstract: This research note presents the results of a feasibility study on how the use of audiovisual and information and communication technology (ICT) tools can help Moroccan women express their understanding of the concept of “emancipation,” and thereby promote wider democratic processes. The study uses a participatory approach with audiovisual tools and techniques to facilitate self-expression by women of different age cohorts, levels of literacy, and economic and social status about what it means to be a Muslim, a Moroccan, and a twenty-first century woman. The use of ICTs has helped women to learn how to represent complex concepts such as emancipation in ways that are more authentic than those given through portraits in the existing literature and media. In addition, the women show a remarkable and respectful capacity to listen to each other and an excitement for having discovered the ability to visualize electronic outcomes of their image collections and drawings. A supportive learning environment helps them articulate their problem with confidence. The research note concludes that in a situation where existing institutions do not provide the space for self-expression, debate, and learning about democracy, social media becomes an important tool for an inductive process of women’s emancipation, starting from the diversity of cultural meanings held by specific groups to respectful dialogues among them.