SAGE Journal Articles

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Article 1Lomawaima, K. T., & McCarty, T. L. (2002). When Tribal Sovereignty Challenges Democracy: American Indian Education and the Democratic Ideal. American Educational Research Journal, 39(2), 279-305. DOI: 10.3102/00028312039002279

Learning Objective: LO 3-1 The Founding and Settling of this Country

Summary: The authors make explicitly address lessons from Indigenous America—the fight to protect and conserve sovereignty, and contests over education in particular—to enrich the national debate surrounding educational issues that impact all students.

Questions to Consider:

  1. The authors state, “But diversity is by no means universally embraced. Many Americans view diversity as a threat to the national fabric, as a problem.” Describe three ways that you agree or disagree with this statement.
  2. Explain the dilemma existing between Native American’s desire for sovereignty and the U.S.’s desire for standardization. How was the goal of the U.S. carried out?
  3. What similarities do you see existing between how the U.S. educated Native American youth and how culturally diverse students are educated today?


Article 2: Pewewardy, C., & Fitzpatrick, M. (2009). Working with American Indian students and families: Disabilities, issues, and interventions. Intervention in School and Clinic, 45(2), 91-98DOI: 10.1177/1053451209340223

Learning Objective: LO 3-2 Historical Perspectives of Peoples in the United States

Summary: The authors address the lack of literature related to educating American Indian students and addressing needs related to disabilities.

Questions to Consider:

  1. The authors state “Educators must understand that the belief system of American Indians differs significantly from the worldview of mainstream U.S. society”, in what ways do you find this to be true based in the article and connections you make to current educational practices?
  2. How do American Indians define disabilities, and how does that definition differ from mainstream U.S. schools’ definition?
  3. The authors share their idea of being culturally responsive and suggest a “best framework for educators working with American Indian students.” What is it, and how can you begin working on this framework?