SAGE Journal Articles

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Article 1Townsend, B. L. (2002). “Testing while Black”: Standards-based school reform and African American learners. Remedial and Special Education, 23(4), 222-230. DOI: 10.1177/07419325020230040501

Learning Objective: LO 10-2 Challenges to Quality Assessment

Summary: The author discusses the impacts of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and High-stakes testing on African American students.

Questions to Consider:

  1. Explain how school reform efforts involving standardized tests are at odds with culturally responsive teaching practices for African American students?
  2. How might legislation like NCLB be in better alignment with the knowledge and cultural ways of African American learners? What would you suggest educational policymakers consider to make the policy more effective and culturally responsive?


Article 2Kea, C. D., Campbell-Whatley, G. D., & Bratton, K. (2003). Culturally responsive assessment for African American students with learning and behavioral challenges. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 29(1), 27-38. DOI: 10.1177/073724770302900104

Learning Objective: LO 10-2 Challenges to Quality Assessment

Summary: The authors discuss issues that take place that create a misdiagnosis for African American children into Special Education.

Questions to Consider:

  1. What is the authors’ main argument for culturally responsive assessment within special education?
  2. How should evaluations be adapted to ensure that culturally diverse students are not misdiagnosed, misidentified, or overidentified within special education?