Learning Objectives

  • Explain the difference between expected and observed outcomes.
  • Identify the two possible explanations for differences between observed and expected outcomes and explain how probability is used to determine which of these potential explanations is the true explanation.
  • Define the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis and write each out in both words and symbols.
  • Summarize the logic behind the assumption that the null is true.
  • Define Type I and Type II errors and explain the trade-off between them.
  • List the four types of bivariate inferential tests, and identify the correct one to use for any given independent variable and dependent variable combination depending on level of measurement.