# Statistics for Criminology and Criminal Justice

Third Edition

# Learning Objectives

- Explain the difference between expected and observed outcomes.
- Identify the two possible explanations for differences between observed and expected outcomes and explain how probability is used to determine which of these potential explanations is the true explanation.
- Define the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis and write each out in both words and symbols.
- Summarize the logic behind the assumption that the null is true.
- Define Type I and Type II errors and explain the trade-off between them.
- List the four types of bivariate inferential tests, and identify the correct one to use for any given independent variable and dependent variable combination depending on level of measurement.