Learning Objectives

  • Identify situations in which, based on the levels of measurement of the independent and dependent variables, t tests are appropriate.
  • Explain the logic behind two-population tests for differences between means and proportions.
  • Explain what the null hypothesis predicts and construct an alternative or research hypothesis appropriate to a particular research question.
  • For tests of means, identify the correct type of test (dependent or independent samples).
  • For tests of means with independent samples, identify the correct variance formula (pooled or separate).
  • Select the correct equations for a given test type, and use them to conduct five-step hypothesis tests.
  • In SPSS, identify the correct type of test, run that analysis, and interpret the output.