SAGE Journal Articles
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Martin, K. R., & Garcia, L. (2011). Unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence before and during pregnancy among Latina women in Los Angeles, California. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(6), 1157–1175.
The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence (IPV) before and during pregnancy among Latinas. A cross-sectional interview measuring pregnancy intent, IPV, and acculturation, using the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans (ARSMA-II), was conducted among Latina women in their 2nd or 3rd trimester of pregnancy at clinics in Los Angeles (n = 313). Overall, 44% of women reported an unintended pregnancy. The prevalence of physical (any) and emotional (only) abuse 12 months before pregnancy was 11% and 22%, respectively. Although both types of IPV decreased during pregnancy (10% and 19%, respectively), most reports of physical IPV during pregnancy (53%) were among women who did not report physical abuse before pregnancy. After adjusting for other factors, physical IPV before pregnancy was not associated with unintended pregnancy (adjusted OR = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.40, 2.16). The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was highest (76%) among highly acculturated Latinas. However, when an unintended pregnancy occurred among less acculturated Latinas, who comprised the majority of the sample (n = 270), it was associated with greater risk of physical IPV during pregnancy (unadjusted OR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.06, 6.23); although the confidence interval included one after adjusting for other factors (adjusted OR = 2.79; 95% CI = 0.98, 7.92). An unintended pregnancy may have a unique impact on relationships in the context of Latino culture, where family and pregnancy are highly valued. Pregnancy often creates an opportunity for providers to discuss issues related to abuse and family planning with women who do not regularly access care. The results from this study may be used to increase the cultural sensitivity with which violence and reproductive health are addressed among the diverse population of Latinas when they connect with prenatal services.
This study aimed to investigate the offender’s decision making in crime confession during police interrogation. On the basis of a sample of 211 incarcerated offenders, the study showed that 21% of offenders changed their mind about confessing or not their crime following police interrogation. Logit regression indicated that contextual factors were associated with the offender’s final decision to confess after controlling for the offender’s initial decision. Multinomial regression further showed that offenders with a lengthy criminal record, advised by a lawyer, and facing drug-related charges characterized by weak police evidence were less likely to confess to the police, even when they initially planned to do so. Findings are discussed in light of the literature on crime confession.
Driving under the influence (DUI) courts are a somewhat recent adaptation of the widely popular drug courts.1 As such there is a need for more research on these specialty courts that target DUI offenders. An important area of research is program completion and determining what factors may be related to participant dropout. The current study presents findings on a 3-year admissions cohort of participants in the Waukesha Alcohol Treatment Court (WATC) for third-time DUI offenders. This program has been in operation for over 6 years and is a court-based intervention program specifically designed by local stakeholders to address the serious DUI problem in Waukesha County, Wisconsin. Results indicate that variables related to pretrial and case processing, including having participated in substance abuse treatment prior to DUI court entry, were related to WATC completion status. Patterns emerged for the sociodemographic and substance use and health variables, although these relationships did not reach statistical significance. DUI court planners can utilize this information when applying The Ten Guiding Principles of DWI Courts to their courts such as identifying subsets of DUI offenders and refining program components to improve participant completion and subsequent successful outcomes.
A content analysis of a random sample of Los Angeles television news programs was used to assess racial representations of perpetrators, victims, and officers. A series of comparisons were used to assess whether local news depictions differed from outside indicators of social reality. In a significant departure from prior research, they revealed that perpetration was accurately depicted on local TV news. Blacks, in particular, were accurately depicted as perpetrators, victims, and officers. However, although Latinos were accurately depicted as perpetrators, they continued to be underrepresented as victims and officers. Conversely, Whites remained significantly overrepresented as victims and officers. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of incognizant racism, ethnic blame discourse, structural limitations, and the guard dog perspective of news media.