Learning Objectives

  • Identify situations in which, based on the levels of measurement of the independent and dependent variables, correlation is appropriate.
  • Define positive and negative correlations.
  • Use graphs or hypotheses to determine whether a bivariate relationship is positive or negative.
  • Explain the difference between linear and nonlinear relationships.
  • Explain the r statistic conceptually.
  • Explain what the null and alternative hypotheses predict about the population correlation.
  • Use raw data to solve equations and conduct five-step hypothesis tests.
  • Explain the sign, magnitude, and coefficient of determination and use them in the correct situations.
  • Use SPSS to run correlation analyses and interpret the output.