Learning Objectives

1. Name the three characteristics of a good research question.

2. Define theory.

3. Contrast the process of research reflecting deductive reasoning with that reflecting inductive reasoning.

4. Understand why an explanation formulated after the fact is necessarily less certain than an explanation presented before the collection of data.

5. Diagram the research circle, and explain the role of replication in relation to that circle.

6. Distinguish research designs using individuals and groups, and explain their relation to the ecological and individualist fallacies.

7. Understand the differences between cross-sectional research designs and the three types of longitudinal research design.