Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

  • Outline the criteria used by the courts to determine if and when the law can treat people differently.
  • Summarize key events and outcomes in the struggle for equality of African Americans.
  • Explain the different paths to equality taken by other racial and ethnic groups.
  • Describe how women have fought for equality and the changing role of women in American politics.
  • Recognize examples of other groups that face discrimination.
  • Identify tools used by citizens to expand the promise of civil rights.