Learning Objectives

After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to

➤ Explain the difference between an affirmative defense and an “elements” defense

➤ Provide examples of justification and excuse defenses

➤ Define self-defense

➤ Explain duty to retreat

➤ Define battered woman syndrome

➤ Know the difference between the alter ego and reasonable belief rules

➤ Differentiate between defense of property and defense of habitation

➤ List and explain the different types of defense of habitation laws

➤ Explain the castle doctrine

➤ Define the law enforcement defense

➤ Know the difference between duress and necessity