SAGE Journal Articles
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This article attempts to identify heretofore unaddressed theoretical problems and offers future directions for researchers and practitioners to both ameliorate those problems and permit adequate testing and implementation. The article also describes current applications of restorative justice programs for offenders that may help clarify conceptual ambiguity.
- How have scholars defined community?
- Why is definitional clarity important?
Learning Objective(s): Identify the rationales for criminal punishment
This article examines the impact of California’s 1994 Three Strikes law on front line law enforcement personnel—specifically whether there is a greater risk of injury by criminal suspects resisting arrest and contact with law enforcement due to Three Strikes. Although the resulting analysis did not evidence a statewide increase or trend, in the Los Angeles area (where there is a higher concentration of repeat offenders and three-strikes prosecution has been more actively pursued), there is a notable increase in arrest rates, resisting and assaulting officers, and a significant increase (113% between 1996 and 2001) in two- and three-strikes crimes with a police officer victim.
- Are the findings generalizable to other jurisdictions?
- What are some of the policy recommendations given by the authors?
Learning Objective(s): State the goals of mandatory minimum sentences and the federal sentencing guidelines; know the rationales for determinate sentencing and indeterminate sentencing