Learning Objectives

After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to

➤ List the elements of attempt

➤ Differentiate between “mere preparation” and “substantial step”

➤ Provide examples of actus reus for attempt

➤ Know the elements of solicitation

➤ Define factual impossibility

➤ State the elements of conspiracy

➤ List two differences between attempt and conspiracy

➤ Explain why incomplete crimes are subject to criminal punishment

➤ Identify the defenses to conspiracy

➤ Define legal impossibility

➤ Explain the merger doctrine and when it applies

➤ Contrast stalking with threats