SAGE Journal Articles

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Article 1: Randel, A. E., & Jaussi, K. S. (2008). Gender social and personal identity, sex dissimilarity, relationship conflict, and asymmetrical effects. Small Group Research, 39(4), 468–491. doi:10.1177/1046496408319875


Learning Objective: 1, 2, & 3

Summary: Abstract: Research on the linkage between sex diversity and relationship conflict has yielded inconsistent findings. In efforts to address this inconsistency and to better understand what contributes to group member perceptions of relationship conflict, interrelationships among sex dissimilarity, gender identity, and relationship conflict were examined utilizing theoretical frameworks from the literatures on identity, status, sex diversity, and asymmetrical effects. Results show that gender social identity moderated the effects of sex dissimilarity on relationship conflict such that in the presence of a strong gender social identity, sex dissimilarity increased perceptions of relationship conflict. This effect was stronger for men than for women, such that men with strong gender social identities in groups in which they were sex dissimilar had greater perceptions of relationship conflict. In addition, a significant three-way interaction was found, in which sex-dissimilar individuals with strong gender social and personal identities perceived a particularly high level of relationship conflict.

Questions to Consider:

1. We use the term gender identity to refer to identification with a particular ______. Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

  1. group
  2. role
  3. sex
  4. theory

2. ______ can be used to form expectations about the quality and type of relationships among group members. Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

  1. Gender expectations
  2. Sex dissimilarity
  3. Sex discrimination
  4. Interpersonal tension

3. Break down the terms by defining and discussing them, in the article’s statement: “Gender personal identity is a self-focused construct in which the individual (rather than the group) is the locus of self-definition.” Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Article 2: Squires, J., & Weldes, J. (2007). Beyond being marginal: Gender and international relations in Britain. British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 9(2), 185–203. doi:10.1111/j.1467-856X.2007.00289.x


Learning Objective: 2 & 3

Summary: Abstract: In this introduction, we situate ‘gender and international relations in Britain’. We discuss our understandings of gender, I/international R/relations and GIR. In the second section we discuss the relationship of feminist to gendered IR, arguing that while intimately related, they are nonetheless not synonymous. We turn in the third section to a critical discussion of feminist IR's tendency to see itself as marginal to mainstream IR, a move that contributes to the marginalisation it laments. In the fourth section we compare the development of GIR with gender in Politics, which has been less concerned from the outset with issues of marginality. In the final section we argue that GIR has come into its own, introducing the articles in this issue as instances of self-assured gendered analyses of ‘things international’.

Questions to Consider:

1. The authors of this article posit that ______ is defined as “a set of culturally defined characteristics, in order to counter the biological determinism from which it is argued that one’s biological sex determines one’s social and cultural characteristics and roles.” Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

  1. genetics
  2. sex
  3. gender
  4. binary assignment

2. Developments in gender theory have largely been inspired and shaped by ______. Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

  1. scientific discovery
  2. expanding biological concepts
  3. social acceptance
  4. feminist politics

3. Explain what the authors mean by their research focusing on “exploring multiple femininities and masculinities in ways that extend beyond specifically feminist concerns.” Cognitive Domain: Analysis

Article 3: Sánchez-López, M. P., Cuéllar-Flores, I., Limiñana, R., & Corbalán, J. (2012). Differential personality styles in men and women: The modulating effect of gender conformity. SAGE Open, 2(2), 215824401245175. doi:10.1177/2158244012451752


Learning Objective: 2 & 3

Summary: Abstract: The authors approached women’s and men’s personality styles within a gender socialization framework, as it appears that personality operates differently for males and females not only as a function of their sex but also as a function of their conformity to gender norms and roles. In total, 604 college students (202 men and 402 women) completed the Millon Index of Personality Styles, and the women also completed the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory. Significant sex differences in personality emerged. However, the number and magnitude differed as a function of women’s conformity to feminine norms to the extent that, in the case of the lower conformity group, the differences between women and men decreased. Conformity to feminine norms also explained from 4% to 33% of the variance in each personality style. The findings support previous research and highlight the importance of studying gender differences and gender roles on the effects of personality.

Questions to Consider:

1. The concept of ______ represents an important step in capturing the diversity of people’s stable behavior. Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

  1. gender role
  2. sexual orientation
  3. personality type
  4. personality style

2. The authors claim that the ______ of gender, operationalized as the level of conformity to gender norms, plays an important role in personality styles. Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

  1. stereotyping
  2. social learning
  3. social identity
  4. social construct

3. Explain and define what is meant by a sociocultural model of gender and personality. Discuss why you do or do not align with this concept. Cognitive Domain: Analysis