Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

9.1 Discuss the different characteristics that have been used to define civilizations and the limitations of these definitions.
9.2 List the different sources of information that archaeologists draw on to study early states.
9.3 Critique different theories of state formation.
9.4 Discuss where some of the first agricultural states were located and their characteristics.
9.5 Appraise different theories of why states collapse.