After reading Chapter 4, you should be able to:
4.1 Discuss the evolution of parent–professional partnerships.
4.2 Describe the four key elements of a family systems model for understanding the impact of a disability on the family constellation.
4.3 Identify the emotional responses associated with the stages of parents’ reaction to their child’s disability.
4.4 Summarize the effects of an individual with a disability on family members.
4.5 Explain how a family’s cultural and linguistic background influences its reaction to a disability.
4.6 Outline ways for establishing effective partnerships with families with children who have a disability.