Learning Objectives

After reading Chapter 13, you should be able to:

13.1 Define legally blind, functionally blind, deaf-blind, and low vision.

13.2 Explain the vision process.

13.3 List common visual impairments affecting school-age children.

13.4 Summarize the historical evolution of educational services for children and youth with visual impairments.

13.5 Identify causes of visual impairments.

13.6 Discuss characteristics of individuals with visual impairments.

13.7 Describe how visual acuity is assessed.

13.8 Define literacy medium and learning medium.

13.9 Outline instructional strategies for students with visual impairments.

13.10 Explain how technology benefits individuals with visual impairments.

13.11 Summarize educational services for persons with visual impairments across the life span.