After reading this chapter you will be able to:
2.1 Explain the role of informers, thief-takers, and thief-makers in England in the 1700s and 1800s and discuss how the problems associated with these individuals were addressed when designing the position of the detective.
2.2 Identify the tools and strategies of criminal investigations during the political era of American policing.
2.3 Explain the role of detectives during the reform era of American policing.
2.4 Discuss how community support and science has shaped criminal investigations during the community-problem solving era of American policing.