Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

8.1 Discuss the relationship between subsistence and the physical environment (biomes).

8.2 Describe how anthropologists study population with reference to fertility, mortality, and migration.

8.3 Describe the different environments and subsistence activities of foragers.

8.4 Discuss the demographic conditions for foragers.

8.5 Describe the environments and subsistence for horticulturalists and pastoralists.

8.6 Describe how settling down influences population growth for horticulturalists and pastoralists.

8.7 Describe the environments and subsistence activities for chiefdoms.

8.8 Describe the changes for populations in agricultural states.

8.9 Discuss the development of energy sources in industrial and postindustrial societies.

8.10 Discuss the demographic transition model and its consequences for industrial and postindustrial societies.