Learning Objectives

After you have read this chapter, you should be able to:

4.1 Discuss the relationship between biology and culture and how anthropologists regard the nature/nurture questions of humanity.

4.2 Explain the difference between nonhuman animal behavior and human behavior.

4.3 Discuss how anthropologists study enculturation and its relationship to personality formation.

4.4 How have anthropologists used the psychoanalytic approach to study personality and culture?

4.5 Discuss the relationship between enculturation and cognition.

4.6 Discuss what cognitive anthropologists have learned about universals and human thought processes.

4.7 How does evolutionary psychology contribute to an understanding of human universals?

4.8 Discuss what anthropologists have discovered about human emotions.

4.9 Discuss the new field of neuroanthropology.

4.10 Discuss the limitations of enculturation in examining human behavior.