Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

16.1 Discuss how ancient societies classified people into different races.

16.2 Discuss how racism developed in Western thought.

16.3 Discuss the basic criticisms of scientific racism.

16.4 Discuss how race is understood in different societies.

16.5 Discuss the basis of ethnicity as understood by contemporary anthropologists.

16.6 Compare the primordialist and circumstantial perspectives on ethnicity.

16.7 Compare the different patterns of ethnic relations described by anthropologists.

16.8 Discuss the historical and contemporary conditions of race and ethnic groups in the United States.

16.9 Discuss why ethnonationalist movements have developed in relationship to globalization.