Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able to:

11.1 Discuss the complexities of sex as described by anthropologists.

11.2 Discuss the complexities of gender as described by anthropologists.

11.3 Discuss the variations of transgender and LGBTQ persons found by anthropologists in different societies.

11.4 Describe the gender relations in foraging societies.

11.5 Discuss the importance of Margaret Mead’s study of gender relations in Papua New Guinea.

11.6 Describe gender relations and patriarchy in tribal societies.

11.7 Discuss gender in chiefdom societies.

11.8 Discuss gender and patriarchy in agricultural states.

11.9 Discuss the changes in gender in industrial and postindustrial societies.

11.10 Discuss gender relations in Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia.

11.11 What have anthropologists learned about sexuality in different societies?