Learning Objectives


  1. An individual who reasonably believes that another individual presents a future threat of serious physical harm to him or her would be successful in most states in relying on self-defense.
  2. A police officer who identifies him- or herself as a law enforcement officer may use deadly force against any fleeing felon who disregards a police command to “halt” and continues his or her flight.
  3. An individual under the law in every state may use physical force to resist an unlawful arrest.
  4. The defense of necessity allows an individual who is drowning to take the life of another person to save his or her own life.
  5. An individual in most instances may not be held criminally liable if the “victim” consents to the crime.
  6. An individual who is found not guilty of a crime by reasons of insanity is not sentenced to prison and is released on the condition that he or she will seek psychiatric treatment.
  7. Alcohol or narcotics intoxication never constitutes a criminal defense.
  8. Individuals younger than fourteen under the common law cannot be held criminally liable because of their status as juveniles.
  9. An individual who is able to demonstrate that he or she was paid a significant amount of money by a government informant to commit a crime will be successful in relying on the defense of entrapment based on this fact alone.
  10. Individuals who recently immigrated to the United States will be successful in relying on the defense that although they broke American law, their criminal conduct was considered lawful in the country from which they immigrated.