Learning Objectives


  1. The criminal law punishes voluntary criminal acts but does not penalize involuntary acts or punish thoughts about committing a crime.
  2. An individual may be held criminally liable for using or selling narcotics but not for the status of being a drug addict.
  3. A champion Olympic swimmer has a legal duty to rescue a child in a swimming pool whom he or she sees drowning.
  4. When narcotics are seized by the police in an automobile, all of the individuals in the car automatically will be held guilty of narcotics possession.
  5. The same criminal act may be considered more serious or less serious based on the offender’s intent.
  6. The criminal intent of purposely is considered the most serious criminal intent because an offender who intentionally violates the law has not been deterred by the threat of criminal prosecution, conviction, and punishment.
  7. An important difference between the criminal intent of recklessly and the criminal intent of negligently is whether the offender is aware of the substantial risk caused by his or her act.
  8. Strict liability offenses do not require a criminal intent.
  9. A criminal intent and a criminal act in most instances are required to concur (to be at the same time) with one another.
  10. An offender whose criminal act results in the hospitalization of the victim will never be held legally responsible for any additional harm that the victim suffers as a consequence of his or her hospitalization.