Learning Objectives


  1. Bills of attainder prohibit punishing an individual for an act that was not a crime at the time it was committed.
  2. One purpose of statutory clarity is to ensure that individuals know what is prohibited by the criminal law.
  3. Laws that distinguish between individuals based on age, race, or gender in most instances are held to be constitutional by courts.
  4. The courts do not recognize any limitations on expression under the First Amendment.
  5. The U.S. Constitution explicitly provides for a right to privacy.
  6. The Second Amendment right to bear arms does not protect individuals’ right to keep firearms outside the home.
  7. The Eighth Amendment prohibition on cruel and unusual punishment has been interpreted by courts to prohibit all methods of capital punishment other than lethal injection.