Learning Objectives


  1. The drinking age differs in various states and ranges between seventeen and twenty-one.
  2. There is probable cause for a police officer to arrest an individual for public intoxication who strongly “smells” of alcohol.
  3. An arrest of an individual for driving while under the influence of alcohol requires that the intoxicated individual is seated on the driver’s side of a moving vehicle, with his or her hands on the wheel and a key in the ignition.
  4. Important factors in determining whether an individual is criminally liable for possession with intent to distribute narcotics are the quantity of the narcotics, the value of the narcotics, and whether the individual is in possession of items associated with the manufacture and distribution of narcotics.
  5. Recreational and medical marijuana, though lawful in every state, remains criminal under federal law.
  6. Mandatory minimum sentences are criticized for providing judges with too great a degree of discretion in sentencing defendants.
  7. Possession of drug paraphernalia without possession of narcotics is not a criminal offense in any state.
  8. An individual charged with a narcotics offense may be subject to assets forfeiture of any money or goods in his or her possession whether or not the money or goods were obtained as a result of the criminal activity with which the individual is charged.