Learning Objectives


  1. A gang member who drives the car in a drive-by killing may be criminally liable as an accessory to the murder although he or she neither possessed the intent to kill nor fired the fatal shot.
  2. A store owner who unlawfully sells a firearm to a known gang member is criminally liable for a murder committed by the gang member using the firearm despite the fact that the store owner did not know about the planned homicide or intend for the gang member to commit the murder.
  3. An individual who following a homicide knowingly assists the killer to flee the police is criminally liable for the murder.
  4. The natural and probable consequences doctrine provides that an accomplice is criminally liable for any and all crimes that are committed during the course of a crime in which he or she participated.
  5. A bar owner under the doctrine of vicarious liability may be held criminally liable for the unlawful selling of alcohol to a juvenile although he or she did not know the sale occurred and did not intend for the bartender to sell alcohol to a juvenile.